In addition to its effect on blood 3 day diet menu pdf, it is designed to be a well-balanced approach to eating for the general public. The DASH diet is based on NIH studies that examined three dietary plans and their results. DASH plan incorporated more fruits and vegetables, low fat or nonfat dairy, beans, and nuts than the others studied. Those with hypertension dropped by 11 and 6 mm Hg, respectively.
These changes in blood pressure occurred with no changes in body weight. The DASH and DASH-sodium trials demonstrated that a carbohydrate-rich diet that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and that is reduced in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol substantially lowered blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. 50 million people in the U. The higher the BP, the greater is the chance of heart attack, heart failure, stroke, and kidney disease. The prevalence of hypertension led the U. In 1992 the NHLBI worked with five of the most well-respected medical research centers in different cities across the U.
Two DASH trials were designed and carried out as multi-center, randomized, outpatient feeding studies with the purpose of testing the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. The standardized multi-center protocol is an approach used in many large-scale multi-center studies funded by the NHLBI. A unique feature of the DASH diet was that the foods and menu were chosen based on conventionally consumed food items so it could be more easily adopted by the general public if results were positive. The initial DASH study was begun in August 1993 and ended in July 1997. Contemporary epidemiological research had concluded that dietary patterns with high intakes of certain minerals and fiber were associated with low blood pressures. The nutritional conceptualization of the DASH meal plans was based in part on this research.
Two experimental diets were selected for the DASH study and compared with each other, and with a third: the control diet. Magnesium and Potassium levels were close to the 75th percentile of U. The DASH diet was designed to provide liberal amounts of key nutrients thought to play a part in lowering blood pressure, based on past epidemiologic studies. One of the unique features of the DASH study was that dietary patterns rather than single nutrients were being tested. The DASH diet also features a high quotient of anti-oxidant rich foods thought by some to retard or prevent chronic health problems including cancer, heart disease, and stroke. 8,813 people were screened for the study, out of which were ultimately chosen 459 participants whose demographic characteristics most closely resembled the target population and study requirements. The sample population consisted of healthy men and women with an average age of 46, with systolic blood pressures of less than 160 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressures within 80 to 95 mm Hg.
Indeed, due to the exceptional burden of high blood pressure in minority populations, especially among African-Americans, a major goal of the trial was to recruit enough ethnic minorities to constitute two thirds of the target sample. In the screening phase, participants were screened for eligibility based on the combined results of blood pressure readings. In the 3 week run-in phase, each subject was given the control diet for 3 weeks, had their blood pressure measurements taken on each of five separate days, gave one 24-hour urine sample and completed a questionnaire on symptoms. At this point, subjects who were compliant with the feeding program during the screening phase were each randomly assigned to one of the three diets outlined above, to begin at the start of the 4th week. 8-week period in which the subjects were provided the diet to which they had been randomly assigned.
The first group of study subjects began the run-in phase of the trial in September 1994 while the fifth and final group began in January 1996. Participants were also given two packets of salt, each containing 200 mg of sodium, for discretionary use. Alcohol was limited to no more than two beverages per day, and caffeine intake was limited to no more than three caffeinated beverages. 0 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic, compared with the control diet.
The minority portion of the study sample and the hypertensive portion both showed the largest reductions in blood pressure from the combination diet against the control diet. The hypertensive subjects experienced a drop of 11. 4 mm Hg in their systolic and 5. 5 mm Hg in their diastolic phases.
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