It is explicitly stated and understood by the participants in the relevant action. Latent functions are those that are neither recognized nor intended. A latent function of a behavior is not explicitly stated, recognized, or intended functions of literature pdf the people involved.
Manifest dysfunctions are anticipated disruptions of social life. Latent dysfunctions are unintended and unanticipated disruptions of order and stability. In the festival example, they would be represented by people missing work due to the traffic jam. Both manifest and latent functions contribute to the social system’s unchanging ongoingness or stasis.
In this very specific sense both may be interpreted as useful and positive. The flame of the candle system flickers. The structural cause would be labeled dysfunctional. The candle’s steady state has been disturbed or changed. The concept affords the only relief to structural-functionalism’s inherent conservative bias. Dysfunction signifies the mechanism by which social change is evidenced within a social system. Whether that change is manifest or latent is a relatively simple empirical question.